HomeCreativityThe diverse faces of the Buddha

JOSH BULRISS is the professional photographer behind The Buddha Project, an initiative capturing unique Buddha imagery across the world. In this photo essay, Josh maps out Buddha’s influence in history, spirituality, art, and culture, a testament to the universality of Buddhism.


Dambulla Cave Temple, Columbo, Sri Lanka


Buddhism is one of the world’s major religions, with a rich and diverse history that spans over two millennia. We can trace its origins back to the 6th century BCE India when Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha, spread his teachings. As Buddhism expanded across the Asian continent, it underwent a fascinating transformation, adapting to the rich cultural, artistic, and spiritual tapestries of the regions it encountered. One of the most visible manifestations of this adaptation is the wide array of Buddha statues found throughout Asia. These statues not only represent the essence of Buddhism, but also embody the unique artistic expressions, historical influences, and cultural diversities of the countries where they are found.


Bagan, Myanmar.webp
Bagan, Myanmar

Cultural adaptation

Buddhism’s journey across Asia was not merely a religious diffusion but also a profound cultural fusion. As it spread to different countries, it blended seamlessly with local customs, beliefs, and artistic traditions. The result was a breathtaking array of Buddha statues that epitomize the specific cultural and artistic sensibilities of each region. In China, Buddha statues may bear distinct Chinese facial features and traditional clothing. In Japan, they may incorporate Japanese aesthetics and design elements, reflecting the harmony between Buddhism and Japanese culture.


Marble Mountains  Am Phu Cave  Hoi An, Vietnam.webp
Marble Mountains Am Phu Cave, Hoi An,

Artistic expression

As Buddhism took root in various regions, local artists and sculptors contributed their unique perspectives to the portrayal of Buddha. This has led to variations in poses, expressions, and attire. Additionally, various cultures place emphasis on specific aspects of Buddha’s life, such as his role as a teacher or healer, giving rise to distinct representations. Thus, Buddha statues are not just religious icons but artistic masterpieces, showcasing the boundless creativity of humanity.


China, Northern Qi dynasty Cleavland, Ohio Cleavland Museum of Art.webp
China, Northern Qi Dynasty, Cleavland
Museum of Art, Ohio


Buddha statues are abundant with symbolic elements that are regionally meaningful. In Sri Lanka they often feature a distinctive “flame” atop the Buddha’s head, symbolizing wisdom and enlightenment. In Southeast Asia, they often feature mudras (hand postures) with specific meanings. These symbols are rooted in local belief systems, enhance the spiritual significance of the statues, and deepen their connection to the culture from which they emerge.

These statues not only represent the
 essence of Buddhism, but also
embody the unique artistic expressions,
historical influences, and cultural diversities of
the countries where they are found.

Nong Khai, Thailand .webp
Nong Khai, Thailand

Regional influences

Local deities and mythological figures have also left their mark on the Buddha statues. Over time, these figures have become intertwined with the representation of Buddha, contributing to the rich tapestry of Asian Buddhist art. In some cases, Buddha statues may be merged with regional deities or given attributes specific to the area, resulting in a unique blend of religious and cultural elements.

Local devotion

The manner in which Buddha is revered can vary significantly from one Buddhist tradition to another. This variation has a direct impact on the portrayal of Buddha in statues. Theravada Buddhism emphasizes a different facet of Buddha’s life to Mahayana Buddhism. These variations in worship give rise to differences in the statues, reflecting the diverse spiritual practices within Buddhism itself.



Materials and iconography

The materials available in a particular region and the symbolism associated with the specific school of Buddhism also shape the statues. Some cultures use materials that are abundant in their area, leading to variations in texture and appearance. Iconography varies as well, with Theravada Buddhism often depicting Buddha as more human, while Mahayana Buddhism emphasizes his transcendental or celestial characteristics.

Historical influences

Historical events and politics have played a pivotal role in the portrayal of the Buddha in art. During periods of persecution, Buddhist art became more abstract to avoid overtly religious symbols. These historical influences have left their mark on the evolution of Buddha statues and the adaptability of Buddhism in different cultural and political contexts.


Delhi,India Greco-Buddhist art  .webp
Greco-Buddhist Art, Delhi,India

A fusion of cultures

The cross-cultural exchange and adaptation is most striking in Greco-Buddhist sculptures, also known as Gandharan art. These emerged during a period of cultural exchange and syncretism between the Greek-influenced regions of Central Asia and the Buddhist areas of India, particularly during the time of the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms from the 3rd century B.C.E. to the 1st century C.E.

The interaction between Greek and Indian cultures in the region that is now Pakistan and Afghanistan led to the creation of Greco-Buddhist art. Alexander the Great’s conquests brought Hellenistic influences to Central Asia, which eventually merged with the existing Buddhist traditions in the area.

Greco-Buddhist sculptures are known for their distinctive stylistic fusion. They often feature the idealized, naturalistic anatomy of Greek sculptures combined with the serene, spiritual expressions of Buddhist art.


Sukhothai, Thailand.webp
Sukhothai, Thailand

They serve as a vivid reminder that
spirituality and culture are intertwined in
complex and beautiful ways, evolving
over time to create a rich tapestry of
human expression and belief.

The tradition of face painting

Nepal is renowned for its distinctive and unique approach to depicting Buddha statues, particularly for adding face paint in vibrant colors and intricate designs, enhancing the cultural and artistic diversity found throughout the region. This Nepalese practice further exemplifies the dynamic relationship between spirituality and art in the world of Buddhism.

The diverse faces of the Buddha

The diverse faces of the Buddha in art are a testament to the adaptability and universality of Buddhism. They serve as a vivid reminder that spirituality and culture are intertwined in complex and beautiful ways, evolving over time to create a rich tapestry of human expression and belief. Buddha statues across Asia not only reflect the essence of Buddhism but also encapsulate the cultural richness of their respective regions, showcasing the boundless creativity of humanity and the adaptability of this ancient tradition.


Kathmandu, Nepal.webp
Kathmandu, Nepal

Photography by JOSH BULRISS


Josh Bulriss

Josh Bulriss

Josh is a self-taught professional photographer who is known for his captivating imagery of Buddha statues. His work has graced book and magazine covers, reflecting his dedication to the craft and his heartfelt tribute to his late mother... Read More